Determination of the optimal replacement content of Portland cement by stone powder using particle packing methods and analysis of the influence of the excess water on the consistency of pastes
AbstractCement is considered the basic component with the highest environmental impact in construction, in terms of CO2 emissions. As for the aggregates, the process of comminution of rocks, in addition to artificial sand, generates stone powder that ends up being stored outdoors, generating environmental damages. Thus, the replacement of cement by stone powder appears as an attractive alternative towards the sustainable concretes. In this context, the objective of this papres is to determine the maximum packing density in Portland cement, silica fume and stone dust pastes, to determine the optimal cement substitution content for the stone powder. In addition, it is intended to verify the influence of excess water on the consistency of the mixtures produced. The substitution was done in contents equal to 0%, 7%, 14% and 21% by volume and, for each content, the packing density was determined analytically by CPM model and combinations were reproduced experimentally. Excess water was checked by the mini Kantro cone test. The results showed that the higher cement substitution content of the stone powder obtained the higher packing density, experimental and analytical, and the higher workability, allowing economic and environmental advantages. Analyzing each material, the stone powder resulted in the highest packing density and silica fume is the lowest one. Therefore, finer particles resulted in lower packaging densities, due to the greater specific surface area, which demands more water. The agglomeration resulted in more empty gaps between the grains. In addition, mixtures flowability increased with the increase of the stone powder content. As the excess water is responsible for mixture lubrication, a higher packing density for a given volume of water improves the flowability.